Cyber War (Paperback)
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In April of 2007, a series of cyber-attacks effectively shut down much of the communication infrastructure of the country of Estonia. This was widely reported in the media and often referred to as the "Estonia cyber war". Most of the attacks were distributed denial of service attacks where pings and bots were used to spam websites so that the websites were unable to handle the traffic. The attacks continued for weeks and were more sophisticated than generally used methods. The "cyber war" was sparked by Estonia relocating a Soviet-era memorial and war graves in Tallinn. Banks, Parliament, government agencies, and news media were the main targets. There was no conclusive evidence to link the attacks to the Russian Government, although there was speculation that the attacks were government sponsored if not government led.A number of cyber events have involved the United States; among these is "Titan Rain," a series of attacks thought to have been initiated by china against several networks including defence contractors, national laboratories, and NASA. In fact, the United States Military and many private companies have multiple daily attacks on their networks ranging from simple spam to more serious attacks on such as denials of service and installing Trojans, virus, Phishing, and other malware.