The invasions of Korea launched by the dictator Toyotomi Hideyoshi (1592-1593 and 1597-1598) are unique in Japanese history for being the only time that the samurai assaulted a foreign country. Hideyoshi planned to invade and conquer China, ruled at the time by the Ming dynasty, and when the Korean court refused to allow his troops to cross their country, Korea became the first step in this ambitious plan of conquest. In 1592 a huge invasion force of 150,000 men landed at the ports of Busan and Tadaejin under the commanders Konishi Yukinaga and Kato Kiyomasa. These two Japanese divisions rapidly overran their Korean counterparts, taking the principal cities of Seoul and then Pyongyang and driving the remnants of the Korean Army into China. The Japanese division under Kato Kiyomasa even started to advance into Manchuria. However, the Korean strength was in their navy and the vital Korean naval victory of Hansando disrupted the flow of supplies to the invasion forces, forcing them to hold their positions around Pyongyang. In 1593, the Chinese invaded capturing Pyongyang from the Japanese and driving them southwards. This phase of the war ended in a truce, with the Japanese forces withdrawing into enclaves around the southern port of Busan while the Ming armies largely withdrew to China. In 1597, following the breakdown in negotiations, the Japanese invaded again with a force of 140,000 men. However, the Chinese and Koreans were now better prepared and the advance came to a halt south of Seoul, and then forced the Japanese southwards. In November 1598 Hideyoshi died, and with him the enthusiasm for the military adventure. The Japanese council of regents ordered the withdrawal of the remaining forces, and the naval battle of Noryang, which saw the Japanese fleet annihilated by the Korean admiral Yi-Sunshin, proved to be the last significant act of the conflict.
About the Author
STEPHEN TURNBULL is the author of over 50 books on the military history of Europe and the Far East. He works as a Japanese cultural consultant and is Lecturer in Japanese Religion at the Department of East Asian Studies at Leeds University. He served as the historical advisor for the Universal Pictures film "47 Ronin", starring Keanu Reeves.
Alistair McCluskey is a serving officer in the British Army. He has served in the UK, Germany, Northern Ireland and Bosnia. He gained his MA at King's College, London. His interests include military history, particularly the Roman Army and World War 1, and Sunderland Football Club. The author lives in Aldershot, UK.
Peter Dennis was born in 1950. Inspired by contemporary magazines such as "Look and Learn" he studied illustration at Liverpool Art College. Peter has since contributed to hundreds of books, predominantly on historical subjects.Peter Dennis lives in Nottinghamshire, UK.
"Stephen Turnbull's The Samurai Invasion of Korea 1592-98 is for any collection of early military history and covers the early invasions of Korea launched by Japanese dictator Hideyoshi: a unique event in that he was the only samurai to invade a foreign country - and planned to move from Korea to China." -The California Bookwatch (October 2008)"Like all Osprey titles, it is highly recommended and one that you will find as fascinating a read as did I." -Scott Van Aken, Modeling Madness (August 2008)